Nature-based Solutions in the Nordics

Nature-based solutions (NbS) are ways to tackle climate change while at the same time strengthening biodiversity and delivering ecosystem services to humans.

While there are many international reports on NbS, there is a need for an overview of NbS covering the breadth of Nordic ecosystems. The Nordic Council of Ministers has launched a research programme running from 2021-24, encouraging the Nordic countries to work together and enhance their knowledge base on nature-based solutions, restoration, climate mitigation and blue/green infrastructure. 

Nordic Council of Ministers programme on nature-based solutions

S-ITUATION is the first of five projects under this programme. We aim to synthesize and present existing research on NbS relevant to the Nordic context, including relevant projects and experiences, policies, knowledge gaps and cost-benefit analyses.

What are nature-based solutions?

Nature-based solutions (NbS) are ways to solve issues related to climate change or environmental deteriation that are supported and inspired by nature.


Nordic co-operation

S-ITUATION is the first of five projects in the Nordic Council of ministers’ four-year programme on nature-based solutions in the Nordics. This is an important part of the Nordic countries’ ambition to become the most sustainable region in the world within 2030. The S-ITUATION team is made up by researchers from respected and well-known natural science institutes in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland and Finland. This composition of different areas of expertise, experience and languages puts us in a unique position to synhtesise existing knowledge on NbS in all the Nordic countries.


A key output from the project is a compilation of existing NbS projects and actions in the Nordic Countries. S-ITUATION will synthesize and summarize the experience from these (both positive and negative). To do this a synthesis (combining scientific literature and targeted NbS projects) is needed, covering the breadth of Nordic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as cost-benefit aspects potentially associated with these. We therefore aim to extract the most important knowledge and results relevant to underpin future application of NbS within the Nordic countries.


The Nordic countries have different approaches to planning and implementing nature-based solutions for biodiversity, climate change adaptation and mitigation. Implementation mechanisms and guidance to different target groups may also vary across the Nordics. We therefore aim to provide a catalogue that gives an overview of the wide range of NbS projects in order to compare and share experiences among the Nordic countries. This will form a basis for knowledge sharing and development of future projects on the topic.

Nature, people and the climate

Nature-based Solutions are actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural and modified ecosystems that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits.

(IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature)

NBS are an essential component of the overall global effort to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. They are a vital complement to decarbonisation, reducing climate change risks and establishing climate resilient societies. They value harmony between people and nature, as well as ecological development and represent a holistic, people-centred response to climate change.

(The Nature-Based Solutions for Climate Manifesto, UN Climate Action Summit 2019)

About us

S-ITUATION is carried out by a team of highly
experienced researchers in the field, representing research institutes in
five Nordic countries.

Read more about the project


Project leader:
Leonard Sandin

Financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers